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Printers marks
These marks or devices, usually woodcuts, were used by printers as a branding mark for their books. Usually they were placed on the title page, but they could also be printed after the title page or even at the end of the volume. Some were simple initials or geometric figures, but other printers used elaborate emblematic devices, which could be confused with an alchemical emblem.

Johannes Frobenius (c 1460-1527), was educated at Basel. In 1491 he set up a printing business there. He used this image of caduceus held by two hands emerging from clouds on the title pages of his books. Although this is is merely a mark to indicated that the book emanated from the printing house of Frobenius, it could be mistaken as a hermetic or even an alchemical emblem.

Another more sophisticated emblematic printer's device from 1565. Here it is a woodcut used by Sigmund Feyerabend a printer at Frankfurt. Feyerbend used a number of different printer's marks or devices. This could be easily confused with an actual emblem.

Printer's mark of Berthold Rembolt Paris 1512, based on the tree of life with two lions and a sun. Again easily confused with an alchemical emblem.