Adept Alchemy by Robert A. Nelson. |
Part II. Chapter 2. Transmutations of Ores.
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Transmutations of Ores
(1) Introduction ~ (2) T. Moray ~ (3) Dunikovski ~ (4) A. Klobasa ~ (5) A. Conrad ~
(6) D. Hudson ~ (7) Joe Champion ~ (8) References
The synthesis of elements by high-energy bombardment of other elements is common knowledge and practice among nuclear physicists. In their fashion, modern physicists also have accomplished one of the goals of alchemy: the production of artificial gold. However, the yields are low and the product is unstable and very expensive. Such nuclides find only limited use in medicine and chemistry.
For example, R. Sherr, et al., reported the "Transmutation of Mercury by Fast Neutrons" of lithium and deuterium. These formed three radioactive isotopes of gold by the n-p reaction, and three isotopes of platinum. (11)
In 1980, a group of researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (Glen T. Seaborg, et al.) reported the production of a few billion atoms of gold as the "trivial result" of an experiment with a Bevalac accelerator. A bismuth target was bombarded with a "relativistic projectile" that chipped some protons from the Bi nuclei, forming gold. The experiment produced less than one-billionth of a cent worth of gold. (1, 6, 12)
Andrew Melchanov published this notice in 1980, but nothing has been reported about it since then:
Soviet physicists at a nuclear research facility near Lake Baikal in Siberia accidentally discovered a fusion reaction for turning lead into gold [in 1972] when they found the lead shielding of one of their experimental reactors had changed to gold. (8)
Several researchers in the 20th century have reported their methods of producing profitable amounts of values from base metals and low-grade ores without the use of nuclear reactors. Some of the methods are genuine low-energy alchemical transmutations.
(2) T. H. Moray
The Moray process is a prime example of what is possible. In 1950, Thomas H. Moray was approached with a request to investigate the possibility of improving the extraction of uranium ores. As a matter of course, the Moray Research Institute (MRI) proceeded by bombarding the ore in an "environment" with x-rays as high as 24 MeV before attempting to extract the values. The average ore contained 0.23% uranium oxide. After irradiation, the ore yielded from 7-75% uranium oxide!
In 1953 the MRI proposed that the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) investigate such a project for the "aging" of atomic ores by a "breeding type reaction with high-energy particles or x-rays in the presence of a proper environment." The AEC declined to grant a contract. (7, 9, 10)
In 1958 MRI adapted its process to the augmentation of precious metal ores. the Moray process uses three main categories of ores, containing traces to a few hundredth of an ounce of gold and silver per ton: 1) low-grade unprocessed gold ore; 2) mill tailings ¾ especially advantageous; this material costs very little, is ground already, and yields excellent results. Higher grade ores seem to be less adaptable to this process; they yield much less of an increase in values than do low grade ores.
Early tests gave yields of 50-100 oz. gold/ton ore. While virtually no gold or silver values can be determined in the raw ore, after irradiation and drying the gold and silver can be identified by standard fire assay or any other normal determination methods...
Metals not otherwise detected are freed for a separation by normal separating processes. This process does not purport to be a separation process in any way in that upon completion of irradiation the samples will have to be disposed of expediently. (9)
The Moray process utilizes an "environmental solution, developed in 1949. Aging became a problem as chemical reactions continued to take place due to hydration and temperature changes. By 1961, the MRI had refined several formulas of solutions, one or more of which work well with most ore types and do not require any aging. They can be used immediately after mixing and can be stored without adverse effects. Their cost is approximately $50/100 gallons (the volume of solution required to process one ton of ore). The solution is heated to an unspecified "elevated temperature" during irradiation.
In a telephone interview with Ken Jones (September 1981), John Moray said:
The environmental material consists of a combination of chemicals whose atomic numbers add up to the atomic number of silver or gold and yield silver and gold upon irradiation [The formulas include arseno- and iron-pyrites in alkaline solution]. Antimony has peculiar properties ¾ it has floating electrons which come in very handy. It is believed that this environment furnishes particles similar to the cosmic ray reaction on the atmosphere. Research work indicates that the radiation must be composed of both high-speed electrons and x-rays. Consistent results under controlled methods were obtained with the addition of a catalyst (a flux or reduction agent, an environment) combined with bombardment of the material ... by an energy bombardment tube developed for the Research Institute.
The "bombardment tube" may be a preferred embodiment of Dr. T.H. Moray’s "Electro-Therapeutic Apparatus" (US Patent #2,460,707, Cl. 128-421; Feb. 1, 1949) In abstract, the invention is described thus:
An apparatus for applying radiant energy therapeutically, comprising means for producing high potential, high frequency electricity; a high capacity sparking condensor; and a treatment electrode connected in circuit with the foregoing...
The invention has been described in the foregoing with sole reference to its use for therapeutic purposes. It should be noted, however, that inorganic matter may also be treated to advantage pursuant to the methods and with the apparatus... It has been found that metals, for example, lead, have changed physical properties after treatment in accordance with the above...
T.R. Dolph published an article about the Moray process (Fate, February 1976), in which he stated:
Dr. Moray engaged my father-in-law, attorney Victor G. Sagers, Midvale, Utah, to represent him in offering the device to the US Government... Transmutation of metals (yes, turning lead into gold) was demonstrated several times; the government supplied the lead and kept the gold. (5)
John Moray commented on this in a letter to Ken Jones (18 January 1982):
The article by T.R. Dolph, Garland, TX, is one of those articles written by a crackpot that has in fact mixed together a number of unrelated facts. There is no such device as described in Fate magazine... The bombardment tube does exist. However, this has nothing to do with the recovery of minerals from low grade ore. The bombardment tube is a part of the therapy device.
The story of gold and lead supplied by the US Government is a complete fabrication. My father and I always detested liars, and this man Dolph is a compulsive liar. His father-in-law, Vick Sagers, would never have said anything similar to what this man has said.
John Moray added this note in a later letter to Ken Jones (11 February 1982):
The bombardment tube is electrotherapy and does not apply to the mining or mineral recovery process, regardless of how you interpret the patent.
The patent application is speaking of a "method" and has to do with an individual trained in the art of that ‘method’ which is all the law requires, and therefore, changing the physical properties of lead, i.e., making it possible to be alloyed with copper or developing a lead semi-conductor has nothing to do with the mineral process again.
The services of the eminent physicist W.J. Hooper (Prof. Emiritus, Principia College) and other scientists were solicited in an effort to discover what was producing such results. It appeared to be caused by "a rapid buildup of atoms of relatively low atomic weights to those of much higher atomic weights" such as silver, gold, and platinum.
In a progress report at the 68th National Western Mining Conference (Denver, CO; Feb. 4, 1965), Dr. Hooper announced:
First of all, I will cite one of several tests carried out in an effort to ascertain whether the modus operandi was actually one of transmutation from elements of low atomic weights to those of the noble metals. A solution was prepared ¾ made up of Baker’s reagent quality chemicals of the highest purity and water, distilled by boiling. These bottled chemicals list the trace materials which might be existent in them. Gold did not appear on any of these lists even in trace amounts. No atoms of higher atomic number than 19 (K) were present in quantity in this solution. Silver has the atomic number of 47, and gold 79. This prepared solution of pure chemicals in glass containers is irradiated by high energy photons for about one minute and then by evaporation the residue was dried and sent to an independent assayer for analysis... It reads 939.76 oz gold/ton and 113.04 oz silver per ton...
A point of great interest in the experimental test I have described is that the specks of gold found in the residue of the solutions reveal a marked crystal structure under microscopic examination. It is a coincidence that Miethe, back around 1925, found his formation of gold to be in small crystals also... The process we have described is in reality a crystal growing bath activated by irradiation. As the gold atoms come into being by transmutation, they become gregarious, which results in the crystal formation.
From this observation there is every reason to suspect that low grade ores and mining tailings provide, not only the seed for crystal growth, but also a nuclei environment which is well advanced or uniquely favorable, for the formation of the precious metals by transmutation.
Dr. Hooper contended that the process is one of nuclear reaction. Dr. Hans Frauenfelde (Univ. Illinois) opined that the energy levels were too much of a departure from the accepted standards to verify this point. Another theory proposes that colloidal gold, lost in the dilution of ore in the environmental solution, is concentrated by the bombardment. The MRI insists that is not the case.
In 1963, MRI conducted experiments with a linear accelerator at the Electronized Chemicals Corporation (Rockford, IL) at energy levels of 11.4-20 meV with doses of 1 megarad. The average yields were 8-9% gold! It was estimated that a production rate of 5 tons of ore per day was possible with the available equipment. Computerized risk analysis indicated that yields over 11.5 oz Au/ton ore could be expected with 99.5% certainty. A higher average (15 oz Au/ton) could be expected in mass production under optimum conditions. Other experiments showed even more promise, yielding 100-200 oz Au/ton (128 oz Au/ton average):
The standard deviation of yields was rather high due to the constant modification of experimental conditions.
MRI rented time on the Varian Associates 8 MeV LINAC in order to test parameters such as dose, dose rate, slurry depth, shield material, electron volt setting, shield height, and the distance of the target from the irradiation source. The shield was a thin sheet of unspecified material placed over the sample while irradiating it:
In main effects, only electron-voltage setting showed up as significant, with high-voltage setting being better than the low. In addition, several interactions between variables showed up as being significant. An interaction between two variables means that when either variable is changed singly, a significant difference results. Some interactions between three variables, or perhaps even more may be present. The following interactions seemed to be significant ones and seem to indicate that a higher voltage would give much better results: 1) Shield height/Voltage; 2) Dose rate/Voltage; 3) Dose/Voltage; 4) Distance of sample from radiation source/Shield height; 5) Solution depth/Shield material; 6) Slurry depth/Voltage.
X-rays perform photo-disintegration, and the electrons furnish the energy and amperage to the reaction. It is suspected that because the escaping electrons have a certain amount of energy, a certain amount of x-rays will be produced in the material by the electrons’ reactions (Compton Effect). The ideal reaction, it is indicated, is for the x-ray to be produced at a target located somewhere outside the accelerator tube where losses of energy would be minimal. This reaction is dependent on the following factors:
1) The isomers of the isotopes reacted upon must be present in the ore before the ore will react to the reaction; 2) These reactions are dependent upon the type target in order to control the frequency of the quantum energy level; 3) High-energy electrons must be present in the ore as well as x-rays; 4) The composition of the environmental solution furnishes other particles that are freed by the action of the resonant frequency of the x-rays and the electrons produced by the particle accelerator; 5) The reaction is a dose-rate reaction and not dependent upon velocity. The velocity of the original particles will determine the depth and time of the reaction only. Over-radiation gives a deterioration rate and loss of values reported...
As the size of the sample varies, the reaction varies on an inverse lineal level wherein doubling the size of the sample would cut the total reaction in half.
Radiation dosages of 0.16, 0.5, and 2.0 Megarads/minute gave peaks on the dosage curve. Four Megarads/minute gives the highest yield. Irradiation lasted one minute. The reaction also is wattage-dependent. The minimum wattage required is 200 watt-seconds per gram of ore:
The process has to be adjusted to the characteristics of different ores. The chemical formulas and the resonant energy levels must be established for each ore.
Consistency was achieved in 1970 by adding to the process a control resonant chamber (Magnetic Undulator) which acts to bring all variables into phase, or into a resonant relationship, with the radiation source, to a point where a consistency was obtained higher than any obtained prior to that time. There are definite peaks at which each ore that is of value with this process, releases the metals found within it. There are peaks for each metal ion within the ore.
The Magnetic Undulator establishes non-propagating, resonant standing waves with the x-ray diffraction wavelength of gold (2.042 Angstroms) in the environmental solution. The chemicals (in copper pans) were bombarded from above. Each bombardment increased the amount of gold 9-fold, but the yield later diminished to only three times the original amount. Consistently high, stable yields were obtained by first irradiating the trays from below and then applying x-rays from overhead. The yields increased 9-fold and remained at that level without deteriorating. The process as developed produces little increase in platinum values, probably due to: a) the energy level of the irradiation source; b) the chemical composition of the environmental solution; c) target type. The silver produced in this process assayed as high as 426 oz/ton. According to the report, the following conditions also apply:
The reaction is sensitive to interference from nearly every material other than glass or porcelain. Plastics cannot be used, nor stainless steel, and most varieties of rubber or brass. Copper can be used if it is in one continuous piece. Indications are that interference is due to electrostatic charge or particle position in the solution.
Better results also would be obtained with suction pumping of the slurry in an all-glass system, rather than the makeshift conveyer belt/copper pan system used by MRI.
In 1931, a Polish engineer named Dunikovski announced that he could produce artificial gold by the action of "Z-rays" on a mixture of silica and felspar melted in bronze crucibles under the influence of 110 kilovolts. Dunikovski claimed to have perfected a process he inherited from his father and grandfather who had developed it. Dunikovski theorized that all minerals contain "embryonal atoms" or "mineralites" that can be artificially matured in minutes.
Several French investors syndicated and subscribed 2,000,000 francs which Dunikovski used to build a laboratory in Paris. But no gold was produced, and he was charged with fraud. He demonstrated his process to the court, but the results were ambiguous and insufficient to prove his innocence. Dunikovski was sentenced to four years imprisonment, but his attorney secured his release after two years. Dunikovski relocated to San Remo and renewed his experiments. He improved the process, gaining significant increases in yields.
His attorney (Jean Legrand) visited Dunikovski with the eminent chemist Albert Bonn to investigate the new situation. M. Bonn witnessed and replicated the process. One type of sand, which contained 11 grams Au/ton before treatment, assayed 859 grams/ton after treatment with the improved apparatus.
Dunikovski later establisheded "Metallex, Societe Anonyme" with Belgian stockholders and established a factory on Lake Neuchatel. Nothing more is known about the affair because all subsequent proceeding were kept secret. (4)
(4) Adalbert Klobasa
About 1937, an Austrian chemist named Adalbert Klobasa claimed to have produced gold using an electromagnet and induction coil with which he treated a mixture of titanium-potassium-oxalate (36 gr), ferrous sulfate (84 gr), copper sulfate (50 gr), sodium sulfide (50 gr), ammonium chloride (100 gr), ammonia (250 ml), sodium silicate (20 cc) and silica (440 gr). The reaction was catalyzed with 100 mg of silver. Two hours of treatment afforded a 1% yield of gold which appeared as brown-red scales. Klobasa claimed that gold is built up from iron, titanium, and sodium. He declined to enter into business with his synthesis:
I am too old, and not fit enough to worry myself chasing around after capitalists.(4)
(5) Arnold Conrad
Another simple method which "ripens green ores" (volcanic sulfides, pyrites, or tellurides) was perfected by Arnold Conrad (Chico, CA). Conrad learned the process from a German scientist. The technique balances the ore’s electropositive charge with 10-150 volts DC. The enhanced values are removed by electroplate refining (or in vacuo for Rh, Os, and Ir). (3)
As all ores are different I may use from one to three additives... to assist in rejuvenating the chemicals and acids in ores. But any material eroded... by water is not amenable to this process.
Another similar method of transmutative enrichment was developed by some California alchemists in the 1970s:
Smelt 2 lb lead with soda ash and/or soda-borax. Use this as the anode, and a stainless steel or carbon rod as the cathode. The reaction with the ore is contained in a carbon crucible with 10% nitric acid as the electrolyte. Add extra flux as needed. The process is repeated from 7-21 times.
(6) David Hudson/ORMEs
In the 1980s, David Hudson discovered the existence of ORMEs (Orbitally Rearranged Monoatomic Elements) which are virtually undetectable by conventional means (except for a distinguishing IR doublet located between about 1400 and 1600 cm-1) because they lack a d-orbital electron. Hudson and associates developed a method to recover ORMEs and convert them into their metallic forms. While it is not a transmutation of one element into another (but rather, the conversion of an allotrope into the common visible form of the elements), the extraction and conversion of ORMEs to metal may explain the claims of some other experimentors. Certain ores, particularly sodic and calcidic plagioclase, contain large amounts of ORMEs which can be extracted by Hudson's process, as described in his Australian patent for "Non-Metallic, Monoatomic Forms of Transitional Elements" (1989):
300 gr of dried material assayed by conventional techniques to show no gold present, ground to less than 200 mesh, is placed in a 1-gallon vessel, fitted with electrodes, with 120 gr NaCl, 10 gr KBr, and 2 liters of tap water.
The anode consists of a pair of 3/8" x 12" carbon welding rods wrapped together with No.10 copper wire. The cathode consists of 1-5/8" ID x 14" glass tube with a medium porosity glass frit with a 1" x 14" x 1/16" stainless steel strip inside in a solution of 36 gr/liter NaCl (approx. 500 ml). Both electrodes are placed into the sample vessel and supported by clamps extending about 5" into the sample solution.
The sample is placed on a roller table at approx. 10 rpm. The electrodes are connected to a (120 V) power supply in conjunction with a 2-3 amp 400-600 PIV rectifier. A 100 W light bulb and the electrodes are hooked in series. The rectifier load is connected to the anode since the rectifier filters out all negative voltage and only passes positive voltage.
The sample is kept under load for a period of 6-1/2 hours. The final pH is in the range of 3-6.5. The voltage across the electrode is 5 volts. After disconnecting the load, the sample as allowed to settle and the solution over the settled out material was removed by decantation...
800 ml of the sample was placed in a 1000 ml beaker and 20 ml concentrated sulfuric acid was added to the solution. With stirring, the solution was boiled down slowly on a hotplate until the solution was just dry (not baked). The just dry salt contains sodium gold chloride. The just dry salt was taken up in 400 ml deionized water and again boiled down to the just dry condition. There should be no discoloration at this point, i.e., a clear solution is formed.
The just dry salt was then taken up in 400 ml 6M HCl, and thereafter boiled down to the just dry condition. The dilution and boiling down step was repeated four times, alternating with a deionized water and a 6M HCl wash, with the sequence controlled to that the last washing was with 6M HCl. The purpose is to remove all traces of hypochlorite oxidant.
The just dry salts are taken up in 400 ml anhydrous ethanol and stirred for approximately 10 minutes. This step is to dissolve the gold chloride salt, to remove the sodium chloride. After stirring, the slurry was filtered through #42 paper on a Buchner funnel.
5 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid was slowly added to the filtrate, mixed, and the filtrate was then allowed to sit for approximately 1 hour. The filtrate was filtered through #42 paper on a Buchner funnel, hand then passed through a filter of 0.5 micron Teflon. The sulfuric acid precipitates out any calcium. Filtration removes the precipitant and a light yellow filtrate is recovered, with all traces of calcium sulfate removed.
The light yellow solution was again boiled down to just dry, taking care to avoid any charring. At this point there should be no further evaporation of ethanol and the just dry residue should be free of color. The residue should have a sweet smell similar to burnt sugar. The occurrence of the sweet smell indicates the end point of the boil-down.
The just dry residue is taken up in 600 ml deionized water to provide a water-soluble gold form which is the gold auride. If desired, the G-ORME can be recovered at this stage or converted into metallic gold. For gold recovery, the solution is put into a 1000 ml beaker and an electrolysis unit was set up... The anode is a gold electrode, 2 cm2 in size, upon which gold solution will plate out. The cathode comprises a 6.8 cm2 platinum electrode contined in a Nafion 117 chamber... Inside the Nafion chamber is 200 ml of electrolyte solution containing 5 ml sulfuric acid per 600 ml of electrolyte solution. It is important to keep the Nafion chamber wet at all times. The potential was measured across the electrodes and then an additional -2.2 volts potential was applied and maintained for a period of 2 hours.
After the two hours, the potential was raised to 3.0 volts and maintained for approximately 18 hours. Bubbles formed on both the gold and platinum electodes. A black material formed on the gold electrode after 3-4 hours. The gold electrode was removed from solution while voltage was still being applied. The electrode was dried in a vacuum oven overnight at 115o C. The electrode was weighed before and after the plating to determine the amount of gold collected.
The metallic gold is, therefore, produced from a naturally-occurring ore which, when subjected to conventional assaying, does not test positive for gold.
The ORMEs are produced from sodium gold chloride, which is reduced to sodium auride:
Continued aquation results in dissociation of the gold atom from the sodium and the eventual formation of a protonated auride of gold as a grey precipitate. Subsequent annealing produces the Gold-ORME. The G-ORME has an electron arrangement whereby it acquires d-orbital hole or holes which share energy with an electron or electrons. This pairing occurs under the influence of a magnetic field external to the field of the electron.
G-ORMEs are stable [as] demonstrated by unique thermal and chemical properties. The white salt-like material that is formed when G-ORMES are treated with fuming HClO4 or fuming H2SO4 are dissimilar from the transition (T) metal or its salts. The G-ORME will not react with cyanide, will not be dissolved by aqua regia, and will not wet or amalgamate with mercury... The G-ORMEs remain as a powder at 1200oC...
G-ORMEs can be reconverted to metallic gold from which they were formed. This reconversion is accomplished by an oxidative rearangement which removes all paired valence electrons together with their vacancy pair electrons, with a subsequent refilling of the d and s orbitals with unpaired electrons until the proper configuration is reached for the T-metal.
This oxidative rearrangement is effected by subjecting the G-ORME to a large negative potential in the presence of an electron-donating element, such as carbon, thus forming a metallic element-carbon chemical bond. For that metal-carbon bond to occur the carbon must provide for the horizontal removal of the d orbital vacancy of the ORME. The carbon acts as a chemical fulcrum. When the element-carbon bond is reduced by way of further decreasing the potential, the carbon receives a reducing electron and subsequently vertically inserts that reducing electron below the s orbitals of the element, thus forming metallic gold.
The above description for the preparation of G-ORME from commercially available metallic gold is applicable equally for the preparation of the remaining ORMEs, except for the specific potential energy required and the use of nascent nitrogen rather than carbon to convert the other ORMEs to their constituent metallic forms. The specific energies range between -1.8 V and -2.5 V depending on the particular element. Alternatively this arrangement can be achieved chemically by reacting NO gas with the T-metal ORMEs other than gold. Nitric oxide is unique in that it possesses the necessary chemical potential as well as the single unpaired electron.
(7) Joe Champion
In the 1990s, Joe Champion announced a variety of methods of transmutations of black sands by thermal burns, melts and kinetic methods. He was convicted of fraud in Arizona after being accused by an irate investor who failed to achieve satisfactory results. Other researchers (including the physicists Bockris and Sundaresan, 1994) validated his processes, however, so the question remain open for experiment.
The process was developed from a method of "growing gold" in an electrolytic cell which was originally developed by Dr. Walter Lussage, a Czechoslovakian geologist (d. 1977). Dr. Lussage revealed his process to Mr. Jack Keller, who taught it to Joe Champion in 1989. Champion subsequently developed the method further.
The original formula is quite simple: black sand (90 gr), charcoal (90 gr), and sodium nitrate (270 gr), pulverized to 200 mesh and mixed thoroughly. The reagents must be pulverized separately to avoid ignition. The mixture is ignited with a torch; it burns about 90 seconds, reaching a temperature of about 700o C. In one assay, the mixture contained 0.18 mg Au and 1.35 mg Ag before ignition; after ignition it contained 212.7 mg Au and 856.8 mg Ag.
Black sand typically is composed of 40% magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), or chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). The necesssary parental isotopes (cobalt, iron, manganese, nickel, and calcium) must be present, according to the formula:
Co59 + Ca40-44 ® Ag99-103
Ni60-64 + Ca44 ® Cd104-108
The addition of a molar proportion of lead enabled the atoms of gold to be collected as they formed, and served as an absorptive shield for radioactivity released in the reaction.
Another formula for the thermal burn process was carbon (300 gr), potassium nitrate (900 gr), sulfur (80 gr), silica (120 gr), ferrous sulfate (100 gr), cadmium (30 gr), mercury chloride (100 gr), lead oxide (50 gr), silver (5 gr), and calcium oxide (30 gr).
In one test that Champion described, the thermal melt process was accomplished in a gas-fired or inductively heated furnace, vented to release gases liberated in the process. A mixture of black sands (1 kg), mineral coal (1 kg), sodium nitrate (3 kg), lead (300 gr), silver (200 gr), and mercury chloride (HgCl2, 1 kg) in a graphite crucible yielded 44 gr gold, 6 gr platinum, and 35 gr rhodium.
Another gas-fired mixture tested by Champion was composed of black sands (100 gr), charcoal (300 gr), sodium nitrate (900 gr) and powered silver (500 gr). When an inductive furnace was employed, the formula needed to be modified: black sands (100 gr), charcoal (350 gr), sodium nitrate (150 gr), silver (50 gr), and copper powder (50 gr).
The gas or electricity was reduced during the ignition period. After the ignition was completed, the temperature was raised to 2000o C for 90 minutes. If necessary, borax or potassium nitrate was added to maintain fluidity of the mixture. When there was no more apparent reaction, the mixture was poured into a mold to cool, and the slag removed. Both the reaction mixture and the slag should be assayed.
Another method was discovered in 1993, utilizing the kinetic energy of a ball mill with 40 kg of carbon steel balls. The liner must be made of iron-coated steel and the reagents must be thoroughly dry for this method to work properly. The ball mill also must have an air-tight seal. 24% of the mineral weight should be ferric oxygen, which is required for the kinetic excitation transmutation to occur.
One of Champion's research associates, Greg Iseman (Mesa AZ), used a microwave digestion process to perform analyses of the formula; this method also produced transmutations.
If the reaction mixture exceeds 15 kg, the yield is reduced because the transmutation cycle is too long and begins to produce base elements instead of precious metals. It was found necessary to add traces of the target elements to the starting mixture in order for the resonance of those elements (i.e., Au) to act as a "stopping agent". Champion also noted:
The following reagents were required to produce synthetic precious metals by this process: silica, ferrous sulfate, lead oxide, calcium oxide, mercury sulfide, and cadmium. The mixture was combined with carbon, sodium or potassium nitrate, sulfur, mercury chloride, and silver. The formula produced synthetic gold, iridium, platinum, palladium, and rhodium...
When the chemical mixture is properly prepared, it has a reproductive factor of over 60%. This was later increased to 90-plus percent when an error was determined in the crystalline structure of the ferrous sulfate. The differences dealt with a magnetic susceptibility at high temperature, i.e., greater than 750o C...
The coincidence factor is extremely important in determining the effectiveness of any nuclear occurrence... The following parameters must be weighed:
1. Natural occurrence (%) of parental isotopes;
2. Percent relationship of parental isotopes to total mass;
3. Composition of total mass;
4. Thermal nuclear cross section of parental isotopes;
5. Magnetic susceptibility of nuclear moment;
6. Type and length of energy excitation;
7. Parental isotopes' complacency with additives...
The coincidence factor is also related to the 'treeing effect': it is a nuclear reaction, such as caused by low energy transmutation situations, where a parental element has multiple isotopes, but when combined with 10a and (10a + a o), produce more daughter isotopes than parents. If charted, this would resemble limbs on a tree...
1. American Business (April 1980), p. 16.
2. Champion, Joe: Producing Precious Metals at Home; 1994, Discover Publishing P.O. Box 67, Westboro WI 54490); see also Bockris, J.: Fusion Technology 26: 261, 266 (1994)
3. Conrad, Arnold: California Mining Journal (February 1973), p. 13.
4. Doberer, K.K.: The Goldmakers; 1948, Nicholson & Watson, London.
5. Dolph, T.R.: Fate 29(2), #311 (February 1976).
6. Garretson, Fred: Oakland Tribune (Sat., 22 March 1980), p. A-7.
7. Hendricks, Ruth L.: "Affadavit" (5 November 1975).
8. Melchanov, Andrew: Chicago Elite (January 1980).
9. Moray, T. H.:I. "Recovery of Minerals from Low-Grade Ore by High Energy Bombardment"; (68th National Western Mining Conf. (Denver, CO; 4 February 1965); II. Hooper, W.J.: "Startling Possibilities in Artificial Transmutation", p. 5-7; III. Hendricks, Ruth L.: "History of Research Project", p. 8-9; IV. Rudolph, Th. E.: "Statistical Evaluation Research Report", p. 10-12.
10. Olsen, Prof. L. M.: Financial & Statistical Evaluation: "Recovery of Minerals from Low-Grade Ore by High-Energy Bombardment".
11. Sherr, R., et al.: Physical Review 60 (7): 473-479 (October 1941).
12. Star (12 February 1980).